Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are integrations of computation, networking, and physical processes.
Embedded computers and networks monitor and control the physical processes, with feedback loops
where physical processes affect computations and vice versa.
The economic and societal potential of such systems is vastly greater
than what has been realized, and major investments are being made worldwide
to develop the technology.
The technology builds on the older (but still very young) discipline of embedded systems,
computers and software embedded in devices whose principle mission is not computation,
such as cars, toys, medical devices, and scientifi c instruments.
CPS integrates the dynamics of the physical processes with those of the software and networking,
providing abstractions and modeling, design, and analysis techniques for the integrated whole.
As a discipline, CPS is an engineering discipline, focused on technology, with a strong foundation
in mathematical abstractions. The key technical challenge is to conjoin abstractions that have
evolved over centuries for modeling physical processes (differential equations, stochastic
processes, etc.) with abstractions that have evolved over decades in computer science (algorithms and
programs, which provide a
"procedural epistemology" [Abelson and Sussman]).
The former abstractions focus on dynamics (evolution of system state over time),
whereas the latter focus on processes of transforming data.
Computer science, as rooted in the Turing-Church notion of computability,
abstracts away core physical properties, particularly the passage of time,
that are required to include the dynamics of the physical world in the domain of discourse.
Berkeley CPS Activities
is pursuing foundational research in the abstractions and analytical techniques of CPS.
Some of the projects addressing this problem:
E. A. Lee, CPS Foundations in Proc. Design Automation Conference (DAC), ACM, 2010.
E. A. Lee, Disciplined Heterogeneous Modeling, in D.C. Petriu, N. Rouquette, O. Haugen (Eds.): MODELS 2010, PRT II, LNCS 6395, Springer-Verlag, pp. 273-287, Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE 13th International Conference on Model Driven Engineering, Languages, and Systems (MODELS), Oct. 3-8, 2010.
E. A. Lee, Computing Needs Time, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 52, Issue 5, May 2009.
Earlier version , EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, Technical Report No. UCB/EECS-2009-30, February 18, 2009.
C. Brooks, C. Cheng, T. H. Feng, E. A. Lee and R. von Hanxleden, "Model Engineering using Multimodeling," 1st International Workshop on Model Co-Evolution and Consistency Management (MCCM '08), September 30, 2008.
E. A. Lee, "Time is a Resource, and Other Stories," International Symposium on Object/Component/Service-Oriented Real-Time Distributed Computing (ISORC), May, 2008; Position statement for panel: "Wrong Assumptions and Neglected Areas in Embedded Research."
X. Liu, E. Matsikoudis, and E. A. Lee. "Modeling Timed Concurrent Systems," in Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR), Bonn, Germany, August 27-30, C. Baier and H. Hermanns (Eds.), LNCS 4137, Springer-Verlag, pp. 1-15, 2006.
E. A. Lee, "Engineering Education: A Focus on Systems," in Advances in Control, Communication Networks, and Transportation Systems: In Honor of Pravin Varaiya, E.H. Abed (Ed.), Systems and Control: Foundations and Applications Series, Birkhauser, Boston, 2005, pp. 69-78.
E. A. Lee and H. Zheng, "Operational Semantics of Hybrid Systems," Invited paper in Proceedings of Hybrid Systems: Computation and Control (HSCC) LNCS 3414, Zurich, Switzerland, March 9-11, 2005, pp.25-53.